Account of Drake's landing in California inexcerpts - Russian: Account of Bering's landing in Alaska inexcerpts - Drake voyage:
Neile Adams Eurasians are collectively called Mestizos in the Philippines. The vast majority are descendants of Spanish, Latino and American settlers who intermarried with people of indigenous Filipino descent. Aside from the more common Spanish, Latino and American mestizos, there are also Eurasians in the Philippines who have ancestries from various European countries or Australia.
Significant intermarriage between Filipinos and European Americans has occurred since the United States colonial period up to the present day, as the US had numerous people stationed there at military bases. Most Eurasians of Spanish or Latino descent own business conglomerates in the real estate, agriculture, and utilities sector, whereas Eurasians of White American descent are largely in the entertainment industry which are one of the biggest industries in the Philippines working as reporters, writers, producers,directors, models, actors and actresses as modern Philippine mass media and entertainment industry was pioneered during the American colonization of the Philippines by the Americans.
Many of them also works in offices and call centers; The Philippines being the call center capital of the world. As opposed to the policies of other colonial powers such as the British or the Dutch, the Spanish colonies were devoid of any anti-miscegenation laws.
Moreover, the Catholic Church not only never banned interracial marriage, but it even encouraged it. The Spanish implemented incentives to deliberately entangle the various races together in order to stop rebellion: For that purpose, the Spaniards of the country, the Chinese mestizos, and the Filipinos shall be admitted with perfect equality as cadets of the military corps; the personal-service tax shall be abolished, or an equal and general tax shall be imposed, to which all the Spaniards shall be subject.
This last plan appears to me more advisable, as the poll-tax is already established, and it is not opportune to make a trial of new taxes when it is a question of allowing the country to be governed by itself. Since the annual tribute is unequal, the average shall be taken and shall be fixed, consequently, at fifteen or sixteen reals per whole tribute, or perhaps one peso fuerte annually from each adult tributary person.
This regulation will produce an increase in the revenue oforpesos fuertes, and this sum shall be set aside to give the impulse for the amalgamation of the races, favoring crossed marriages by means of dowries granted to the single women in the following manner.
To a Chinese mestizo woman who marries a Filipino shall be given pesos; to a Filipino woman who marries a Chinese mestizo, Ioo pesos; to a Chinese mestizo woman who marries a Spaniard, 1, pesos; to a Spanish woman who marries a Chinese mestizo, 2, pesos; to a Filipino woman who marries a Spaniard, 2, pesos; to a Spanish woman who marries a Filipino chief, 3, or 4, pesos.
Some mestizo and Filipino alcaldes-mayor of the provinces shall be appointed. In a word, by these and other means, the idea that they and the Castilians are two kinds of distinct races shall be erased from the minds of the natives, and the families shall become related by marriage in such manner that when free of the Castilian dominion should any exalted Filipinos try to expel or enslave our race, they would find it so interlaced with their own that their plan would be practically impossible.
Among them was Sir John BowringGovernor General of British Hong Kong and a well-seasoned traveler who had written several books about the different cultures in Asia, who described the situation as "admirable" during a visit to the Philippines in the s. The lines separating entire classes and races, appeared to me less marked than in the Oriental colonies.
I have seen on the same table, Spaniards, Mestizos Chinos cristianos and Indios, priests and military.
There is no doubt that having one Religion forms great bonding. And more so to the eyes of one that has been observing the repulsion and differences due to race in many parts of Asia. And from one like myself who knows that race is the great divider of society, the admirable contrast and exception to racial discrimination so markedly presented by the people of the Philippines is indeed admirable.
Sawyer, who had spent most of his life in different parts of Asia and lived in Luzon for fourteen years. His impression was that as far as racial integration and harmony was concerned, the situation in the Philippines was not equaled by any other colonial power: Spaniards and natives lived together in great harmony, and do not know where I could find a colony in which Europeans mixes as much socially with the natives.
Not in Java, where a native of position must dismount to salute the humblest Dutchman. Not in British India, where the Englishwoman has now made the gulf between British and native into a bottomless pit. As of today European genes are spread throughout the country in great but specifically unknown scale, together with Chinese genes and Indian, Arabic and Japanese genes, that evolved modern Filipinos in a distinctive Austronesian path.
In a research done by Dr.Many factors conditioned the ways Europeans responded to Native Americans and the ways Native Americans responded to Europeans. Motivations, expectations, political and social structures, religious beliefs, concepts of civilization, and perceptions of wealth and power all played a role.
For example, popular depictions of Native American history from the nineteenth century have an Anglocentric perspective. Writers narrated the country’s history from a White American perspective, often celebrating America’s “winning of the West” with the national self-confidence characteristic of the era.
There is another very important point to keep in mind: European colonization and settlement of North America (and other areas of the so-called "new world") was an invasion of territory controlled and settled for centuries by Native Americans.
EUROPEAN INVASION OF INDIAN NORTH AMERICA, –Indian North America was peopled in by some five hundred societies who fully used the continent—which their ancestors had inhabited for about 25, years—to sustain themselves by hunting and gathering, slash and burn migratory farming, or, especially in the south, by settled agriculture.
gave people a more expansive outlook. Prior to the Renaissance, loosely organized medieval kingdoms, ignorance of classical learning and plagues prevented people from thinking beyond the problems in their own communities.
In the Renaissance, Europe became more prosperous and political authority became more united to form nation states. European expansion into North America – whether to find gold, escape religious persecution or start a new life – led to the destruction of Native American livelihoods.